Lexicon of concepts and definitions of the cannabis industry

Standardisation cannot be avoided in any industry. The cannabis industry, too, requires, in the process of its emergence, a standardisation of the language of communication used by participants from the farmer to producers and marketers to the consumer. A brief Google search of terms indicates that there are people among us who understand this. This text is my attempt to present solutions that already exist where the industry, working with herbal, supplement and vitamin specialists, has already developed some common language to facilitate communication.

Read in: 18 minute(s)

A word of introduction

An interesting attempt to create a glossary of terms and definitions for the cannabis industry was made in May 2021 by, among others, Mr Tomasz Różański - partner and author of the Era of Hemp portal.

At Purehemp.co.uk, I took a slightly different approach to the subject of creating a lexicon.

If I have to work on an issue, I first of all look around for already existing proposals for solving the problem. This is how I came across Hemp Lexicon by the Hemp Committee of the American Herbal Products Association.

AHPA (American Herbal Products Association) is a prestigious institution with a history of more than 35 years, whose mission is to promote the responsible and sustainable use of herbs in commercial products. The AHPA's Hemp Committee is headed by Mr Asa Waldstein - founder of the Supplementary Advisory Group. It is under his experienced leadership that a glossary of terms has been developed and is used by experts, agricultural producers, cannabis production and processing companies, and companies marketing cannabis product brands. It also serves as a reference for the regulatory bodies at various levels that make the applicable law in the US.

The aim of the Committee's work is to create a standardised terminology to serve as a standard for communication not only in the US market, but also internationally. The Hemp Lexicon is still a working document. In correspondence with Ms. Jane M. Wilson, who serves as Director of Development at the AHPA, one can read that the authors of the Hemp Lexicon are open to our Polish suggestions for editorial changes or for indicating the need to add additional terms to the lexicon.

I think that this can be seen as a wide-open door to cooperation between, among others, the Polish Chamber of Hemp and experts from our country with their counterparts from overseas. Such cooperation can and should be a great opportunity to enhance international cooperation in the scientific, legal and regulatory and probably also economic fields.

This text is a translation of the terms contained in the lexicon. I am not their author. The credit and authorship goes solely to the AHPA team members. I have obtained written permission to translate and present the glossary to the Polish cannabis community.

Attention! Some of the terms contained below may already have their own definitions resulting from the applicable Polish law or market practice. The following list of terms is open-ended and serves - for the time being - as a guide. for educational purposes only.

If, when reading the text, you find obvious errors very please email me at [email protected].

You can download the full translation and the original version of the document at the bottom of the page. In addition to the lexicon in the original, you will also find an interesting introduction which, due to the format, I have omitted here. The document contains references to external documents, which I have omitted in the translation but which are an important supplement to the content presented.

Lexicon of terms

For the purposes of this lexicon, the following terms have the following meanings:

"Cannabinoid activated" denotes a cannabinoid from which the carboxyl group has been removed, thus converting a cannabinoid precursor (such as CBDA) native to the plant into a decarboxylated form (such as CBD).

"Active relationship' - See entry under Botanical associations, genera.

"Undesirable effect" means any health-related event after use of the product that is adverse / undesirable.

"Party" means the following:

  • for plant material that has not been processed: a specified quantity of plant material harvested over a specified period of time from a specified growing area or collection site;
  • for processed ingredients or finished products: a specified quantity of a material or product which is homogeneous and intended to conform to established norms / standards and is produced within a specified period of time during a single production cycle.

Lot number" or "identification number" means any distinctive grouping of letters, numbers or symbols, or any combination thereof, by which the full history of the cultivation, harvesting and packaging of a lot or batch of plant material or the production/processing, packaging, labelling and/or temporary transport supervision of a lot of material or of a finished product can be identified.

"Biomass" means the botanical material from which the extract is produced.

Botanical associations, genera: The chemical components of botanical remedies and preparations fall into several categories as described below.

"Active relationship" means a compound or class of compounds that has been shown to be fully responsible for the biological activity of a botanical preparation, exhibiting the same magnitude and type of biological response when tested in isolation as when tested as a component of a botanical preparation. Such compounds are also characterised by a dose-dependent response.

"Co-active relationship" denotes a compound or class of compounds for which biochemical activity has been demonstrated in vivo or in vitro, but whose biological response is only partial compared to the biological response of the plant preparations that contain it. In other words, when compounds are tested both in isolation and as a component of a plant preparation, the isolated compounds show less activity than in their natural combination in the preparation. These compounds are known as 'co-active' because two or more types of compounds act together to produce the observed activity.

"Tags" [Markers] refers to compounds or a class of compounds used for technical purposes in the production process, such as measuring content homogeneity, identification, stability assessment, etc. Both biochemically active and inactive compounds can be used as markers.

"Broad-spectrum extract" - See section Extracts.
"Broad-spectrum hemp extract" - See section Extracts.

"Cannabidiol (CBD)" denotes a cannabinoid with the formula C21H30O2 with the following chemical structure:

chemical formula of cbd - cannabidiol

"Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)" denotes the cannabinoid precursor cannabidiol (CBD) with formula C22H30O4 and chemical structure:

chemical formula of cbda - cannabiolic acid

"Cannabigerol (CBG)' denotes a cannabinoid with the formula C21H32O2 and chemical structure:

cbg - cannabigerol - chemical formula of cannabigerol

"Cannabimimetic" refers to a compound that is not structurally a cannabinoid, but which can elicit a biological response similar to that produced by structural cannabinoids by acting directly or indirectly on cannabinoid receptors in the body.

"Cannabinoids' are structurally defined as a diverse class of C21 or C22 terpenophenolic compounds found in hemp, its carboxylic acids, analogues and processed products. The term is also used in the scientific literature to describe structurally unrelated cannabimimetic compounds.

NOTES: For the labelling of consumer products, the AHPA recommends the term 'cannabinoid' and variations such as 'phytocannabinoid' should be limited to the structural cannabinoids produced by Cannabis sativa L. and their carboxylic acids, analogues and processed products.

"Artificial cannabinoid" means any cannabimimetic compound that interacts with cannabinoid receptors, but whose molecular structure is not found in nature.
These are often referred to as 'synthetic cannabinoids', but the AHPA advises against the use of the term 'synthetic cannabinoids', as it eliminates the distinction between the terms 'artificial', 'identical to natural', 'synthesised' and 'naturally occurring'.

"Endocannabinoid" means a cannabimimetic compound produced endogenously in the bodies of humans or animals.

"Naturally-identical cannabinoid' denotes a man-made structural cannabinoid compound that is identical to those found in plants such as cannabis in terms of structure and stereochemistry.

"Phytocannabinoid" means, for the purposes of this document, the structural cannabinoid compound produced by Cannabis sativa L. The term may also be used in the scientific literature to refer to cannabimimimetic compounds from other plants, such as the C22-free terpenes from hops.

"Synthesised cannabinoid" means a cannabinoid synthesised in the laboratory or by industry using targeted synthetic or biosynthetic chemistry rather than traditional food preparation techniques such as heating or extraction. They may be identical to natural or artificial, as this definition refers only to the process of their formation.

"Cannabinol (CBN)" denotes a cannabinoid with the formula C21H26O2 with a chemical structure:

cannabinol cbn chemical formula

"Chemovar" means a cultivated plant variety that can be distinguished by the composition of its chemical constituents.

"Co-active relationship' - See Botanical associations, genera.

"Composition" means the overall mixture of ingredients that results from the manufacture of a product according to the formula and process set out in the product's manufacturing specification.

"Cold pressing" means the extraction of oils or other substances from plant material by mechanical pressure without the use of heat as a production medium.

"Component" means any substance intended for use in the manufacturing process of a product, including those not present in the batch of the final product. Ingredients include hemp, hemp intermediates used as ingredients, other ingredients and processing aids.

"Crude extract" - See section Extracts.

"Variety" (or cultivated variety) means a plant variety deliberately selected for characteristics which are clearly distinguishable from other cultivated varieties of the same species and which are uniform and stable so that these characteristics are retained during the propagation of the variety.

Dab" refers to a small amount of pure (i.e. without the addition of other ingredients) hemp resin, rosin or resinoid extract that is intended for consumption, vaporisation or smoking. Depending on the texture, consistency and/or physical form, dabs may take different names e.g. 'crumble', 'crystals', 'wax' or other suggestive names.

"Decarboxylation" means the process of treating hemp material or product to remove carboxyl groups from the cannabinoids present in the plant, in order to produce transformation products [neutral cannabinoids] such as THC and CBD. Decarboxylation is usually carried out by applying heat to the raw hemp material or during extraction.

"Decoction" - See section Extracts.

"Dietary component" is defined in US law as an ingredient in a dietary supplement that is a vitamin; a mineral; an herb or other botanical; an amino acid; a dietary substance for use by humans to supplement the diet by increasing total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, ingredient, extract or combination of any of these.

NOTES: this definition may be different from the one in force under Polish/European law

"Dietary supplement" is defined in US law as a food product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that contains or includes one or more dietary ingredients; is intended to be consumed usually in tablet, capsule, powder, gel capsule, capsule or liquid form; is not intended for use as a conventional food or as the sole ingredient in a meal or diet; and is labelled as a dietary supplement.

NOTES: this definition may be different from the one in force under Polish/European law

Distillation" means a purification technique that uses heat and/or reduced pressure to evaporate the plant constituents from the liquid, followed by condensation and collection. "Distillate" means the material prepared using this technique. (For biomass processing applications using solvents such as steam or ethanol, distillation may also act as an extraction technique; see section on extraction below).

NOTES: In the hemp industry, CO2 (carbon dioxide) extracts are sometimes referred to as distillates, but this is not an accurate use of the term.

"Essential oil" means any of a class of volatile terpenoid compounds from plants. Essential oils are also referred to as volatile oils.

"Extract" means a complex, multicomponent mixture obtained after the use of a solvent to dissolve the biomass components. Extracts can be in dry, liquid or semi-solid form. Excipients can be added to extracts to adjust concentration; to increase stability; to reduce microbial growth; and to improve drying, flow or other production characteristics. Extracts are not the same as pressed juices, pure compounds isolated from herbs or synthetically modified plant ingredients.

NOTES: The choice of crude plant material, solvent(s) and manufacturing processes used to produce the extract influences the range and levels of plant constituents present in the resulting extract.

NOTES: The verb 'extraction' can be used to describe any process that selectively removes part of the plant's constituents, either by using solvents or by physical processes. The resulting material can only be called 'extract' if a solvent such as water, ethanol or CO2 is used. Material obtained only by physical processes may be called 'pressed oil', 'juice', 'resin', etc., respectively.

Extraction methods

Extraction methods: Extracts can be divided according to the extraction method as follows:

Decoction" refers to an extraction technique in which the herb is boiled in water, it is also called the extract prepared by this technique.

Distillation" means an extraction technique in which solvent vapour (such as steam or ethanol vapour) is used to extract botanical constituents from biomass, followed by cooling and condensation of the extracted constituents. "Distillate" means the extract prepared by this technique. (Distillation may also serve as a technique for purifying extracts produced by other means; see 'distillation' in the main list of definitions above, separately from the 'Extracts' section).

NOTES: In the hemp industry, CO2 (carbon dioxide) extracts are sometimes referred to as distillates, but this is not an accurate use of the term.

Infusion" means an extraction technique by which the herb is soaked or steeped in water without boiling, it is also called the extract prepared by this technique

Maceration" means an extraction technique in which the plant material is allowed to soak up the extraction solvent until the cellular structure of the herb is penetrated and the soluble components are dissolved. "Macerate' as a noun means an extract prepared by this technique.

Percolation" means an extraction technique in which the plant material is thoroughly extracted with fresh solvent until no extractable components remain. "Percolate' as a noun means an extract prepared by this technique.

Chemical composition of the extracts

Extracts can be described on the basis of the complexity of their chemical composition as follows::

"Broad-spectrum extract" means an extract containing a wide range of the plant's native compounds. Broad-spectrum extracts are produced using non-selective solvents and manufacturing processes, thus capturing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic types of plant constituents.

NOTES: In the hemp industry, the term 'broad spectrum extract' is now used in a different way. See additional discussion below in the sub-section on cannabis extract terminology.

"Full spectrum extract" means an extract that is complete in terms of chemical or botanical composition. The term is variously applied to products produced by repeated extraction of the same biomass using different solvents from hydrophilic to hydrophobic or from polar to apolar (thus obtaining the full range of soluble compounds native to the plant); extraction of multiple parts of the same plant (e.g. extraction of the root, aerial parts and flowers); extraction from multiple species of the same plant genus; or by including the crude (i.e. not extracted) component of the plant together with the extractives.

NOTES: In the hemp industry, the term 'full-spectrum extract' is now used in a different way. See additional discussion below in the subsection on cannabis extract terminology.

"Selective extract" means an extract produced using solvents that selectively extract only a narrow range of native constituents from the plant. Selective extracts are usually produced using relatively hydrophobic or apolar solvents.

"Semi-purified extract" means an extract containing only a narrow range of native constituents from the plant, which is produced by partial purification of the desired constituents from an extract with an initially broader spectrum.

NOTES: If purification is carried out to the end, the resulting material can no longer be called an 'extract', since an extract is by definition a complex multicomponent mixture.

Other terms related to extracts

Other terms related to extracts include:

Crude extract" means an extract that is not further processed to concentrate or remove plant constituents after the original extraction. (Crude extracts may be further processed by filtration, pressing, partial or total removal of solvent, grinding, mixing with excipients and by other physical processes whose main purpose is not to change the botanical composition of the extract).

NOTES: For hemp extracted to obtain CBD, the crude extract typically contains <60% cannabinoids.

"Extract ratio" means a measure of the concentration or dilution level of an extract, expressed as a ratio, in which the first number denotes the amount of dried plant starting material expressed in metric units and the second number denotes the amount of finished total extract expressed in metric units . Where fresh rather than dried starting material is used to determine the ratio, this fact shall be disclosed. When the ratio may vary from batch to batch, the ratio may be given as a range (e.g. "4-5:1") or as an average.

"Enhanced extract" means an extract whose native content of specific constituents has been enhanced by the addition of the same constituents obtained from exogenous sources of the same botanical constituent, for example by purchasing from a vendor or producing a concentrate or isolate using an extraction process targeting specific constituents.

NOTES: The AHPA recommends (and, in the case of hemp, some jurisdictions require) that enhancement information be disclosed on the product label, at a minimum by disclosing two separate ingredients in the 'Ingredients' statement on the label (for example, 'Ingredients: Aboveground Hemp Extract, CBD Isolate').

"Native extract" means material present in the extract consisting solely of constituents endogenous to the biomass or formed during extraction, excluding any excipients or other added substances. The term may refer to a concentrated liquid extract from which the solvent has been removed, or it may refer to the extract or that part of the finished extract which consists exclusively of native constituents.

"Resin extract" means an extract with a characteristic odour, obtained from biomass by extraction with a non-aqueous solvent.

NOTES: Multiple extractions of the same biomass and then combining the fractions to produce a single batch of extract does not result in a
"amplification" of the extract obtained; rather, this is the normal process by which most extracts are produced. Similarly, combining separately produced batches of extract into a single batch to achieve a certain level of ingredient(s), when all batches are extracted using the same extraction process, does not 'amplify' the resulting extract; rather, it is a common procedure for standardising extract.

"Standardised extract" means an extract produced by careful control of agricultural practices, raw material specifications and production processes to optimise the reproducibility of the extract between batches, which may include controlling the levels of one or more botanical constituents in the extract (i.e. marker, active and/or co-active compounds). If the levels of such constituents are to be controlled, concentration can be adjusted by adding fillers or mixing batches of extract of different strengths (where these batches of extract are produced using the same manufacturing process). Standardised extracts can be full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, selective or partially purified; in other words, standardisation refers to the controls used in production, not to the degree of chemical complexity or purification.

NOTES: If a batch of extract is combined with a concentrated source of one or more ingredients produced using a different production process, the resulting material is a 'fortified extract' and not a 'standardised extract'.

"Tincture" means a liquid alcoholic or water-alcoholic extract in which 1 part by weight of the original botanical material or extracts is extracted or dissolved in (usually) 2 or more parts by volume, but (usually) not more than 10 parts by volume of solvent, with all measurements in metric units. The use of fresh biomass in the production and/or calculation of the extract ratio is acceptable, but must be stated on the product label. The traditional formulation in the US most often uses dried biomass and a dilution of 1:5 or 1:10.

NOTES: Term "infusion" was sometimes inappropriately used in the hemp industry to describe hemp oils or diluted hemp oils.

Concepts related to cannabis in extracts

Terms related to hemp extracts. In relation to hemp products, the terms related to extract are:

"Broad-spectrum hemp extract" or "Broad-spectrum extract" as currently used in the hemp industry means a resinous hemp extract containing a wide range of relatively hydrophobic hemp constituents that has been processed to remove THC in such a way that THC has been rendered undetectable by a suitable laboratory using a method with a detection limit of less than 0.01%. Broad-spectrum cannabis extracts may be fortified with constituents that have been separately concentrated or isolated from cannabis. (See 'fortified extract' above).

NOTES: This use of the term 'broad-spectrum hemp extract' is inconsistent with the long-standing use of 'broad-spectrum extract' and is not clear that they convey the most salient feature of the preparation, namely that it is a selective or partially purified extract from which THC has been removed. The AHPA recommends replacing this term with alternative language such as 'THC-free hemp CBD extract', as defined below.
If a jurisdiction's regulations require the use of 'broad spectrum hemp extract' or 'broad spectrum hemp extract' to describe what is in fact a selective or partially purified extract, the product label should contain information that clarifies the true nature of the product to the consumer, e.g. by highlighting the CBD or other cannabinoid content or by using terms such as 'resin' or 'resin'.

"Full-spectrum hemp extract" or "Full spectrum extract" as used in the hemp industry today means a resinoid hemp extract containing a wide range of relatively hydrophobic hemp constituents, including, but not limited to, any naturally occurring THC, other cannabinoids and terpenes that have been processed without the intentional removal of any compounds and has a final THC amount of no more than 0.3%. Full-spectrum cannabis extracts may be fortified with ingredients that have been separately concentrated or isolated from cannabis. (See 'fortified extract' above).

NOTE: This use of the term 'full-spectrum hemp extract' is inconsistent with the long-standing use of 'full-spectrum extract' and leaves the consumer unable to distinguish 'full-spectrum' selective hemp extracts containing only a number of hydrophobic constituents from 'full-spectrum' hemp products that are in fact a particularly complete representation of the botanical source. AHPA recommends replacing this term with alternative language such as 'full spectrum CBD extract', as defined below. If the jurisdiction's regulations require the use of 'full spectrum hemp extract' or 'full spectrum extract' to describe what is in fact a selective or partially purified extract, the product label should include information that clarifies to the consumer the true nature of the product , e.g. 'full spectrum CBD extract'.

"Full-spectrum hemp CBD extract" means a resinoid cannabis extract containing a wide range of relatively hydrophobic cannabis constituents, including, but not limited to, any naturally occurring THC, other cannabinoids and terpenes, which has been processed without the intentional removal of any compounds and has a final THC quantitative rating of no greater than 0.3%. The term 'CBD' can be replaced by any accurate descriptor such as 'cannabinoid', 'resinoid' or another cannabinoid such as CBN. Full-spectrum hemp CBD extracts can be fortified with ingredients that have been separately concentrated or isolated from hemp. (See 'fortified extract' above).

NOTES: The AHPA suggests this term as a more accurate substitute for 'full-spectrum cannabis extract' as currently used by the cannabis industry.

"Hemp flower extract" means an extract produced from biomass consisting of some or all parts of the hemp plant. Hemp extracts of any type (e.g. full spectrum, standardised, THC-free, etc.) do not contain (a) any added synthesised cannabinoids; or (b) any added ingredients that have been concentrated or isolated from a source other than hemp (e.g. terpenes from citrus oil). Hemp extracts may be fortified with ingredients that have been separately concentrated or isolated from hemp. (See 'fortified extract' above).

NOTES: Hemp extract is sometimes identified on the label as 'hemp oil', which is an inaccurate use of the latter term.

"Hemp isolate" is not an extract, even though it is derived from hemp, because by definition an "extract" is a complex, multicomponent mixture. See the definition of "hemp isolate" below.

"Hemp oil extract" means hemp extract produced using vegetable oil as the extraction solvent.

"Hemp extract CBD 0% THC (or without THC)" means a resinoid cannabis extract containing a wide range of relatively hydrophobic cannabis constituents that has been processed to remove THC in such a way that the relevant laboratory has determined that THC is undetectable using a method adequate for the purpose with a detection limit of less than 0.01%. The term 'CBD' can be replaced by any accurate descriptor such as 'resinoid', 'cannabinoid' or another cannabinoid such as CBN. Non-THC CBD extracts from cannabis may be fortified with ingredients that have been separately concentrated or isolated from cannabis. (See 'fortified extract' above).

NOTES: The AHPA suggests that this term is a more accurate and straightforward substitute for 'broad spectrum cannabis extract' as currently used by the cannabis industry.

"Raw hemp extract" means hemp extract that has not been decarboxylated.

"Oextruded hopper" - See entry for Pressed oil.

"Extraction coefficient" - See section Extracts.

"Solid oil" means a non-volatile oil of animal or vegetable origin.

"Enhanced extract" - See Extracts section.

"Full spectrum extract" - See Extracts section.

"Full-spectrum hemp extract" - See Extracts section.

"Hashish" (also known as "hash") means a resinoid substance derived from Cannabis sativa L. consisting of mechanically separated resin and fragments of plant material, especially hairs, obtained by techniques such as rubbing the plant between the hands or sieving the dried plant material. Obtained using an ice-water bath and/or frozen plant material, it may be referred to as 'bubble hash' or 'ice hash'.

"Hemp" means the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of that plant, including its seeds and all derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts and salts of isomers, whether growing or not, with a concentration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol of not more than 0.3 per cent on a dry weight basis.

"Hemp product" means a product other than cannabis itself that contains cannabis or is derived from cannabis and is intended for inhalation, oral consumption or topical application.

"Hemp cultivation" means the cultivation of hemp to be used as or in food, including dietary ingredients and food supplements.

"Hemp isolate" refers to a chemical constituent, such as cannabidiol (CBD), which has been isolated from hemp and contains THC as an impurity at levels below 0.3%. Isolates may contain traces of other components, moisture, etc.

NOTES: Some jurisdictions have set a quantitative threshold of 95%, so that if a cannabis ingredient is concentrated to at least 95% purity, it is considered an isolate.

"Hemp oil' means hemp extract or isolate dissolved in vegetable oil. The term may also include a description of the type of hemp extract used, such as "broad spectrum hemp oil" or "CBD hemp oil".

NOTES: The term is sometimes used to imprecisely describe cannabis extracts with an oily consistency.

"Hemp company" hemp operations) means any business engaged in the propagation, cultivation, post-harvest processing, production/processing, packaging, labelling, wrapping or storage of hemp or hemp products.

"Hemp planting material" means cannabis seeds, seedlings, cuttings, clones, etc. used by the crop to grow cannabis.

"Hemp extract" - See Extracts section.

"Hemp oil extract" - See Extracts section.

"Hemp seed oil" means edible oil obtained by pressing hemp seeds or extracting hemp seeds with a hydrophobic solvent.
Note: hemp oil is not 'hemp oil', as it consists of the oil naturally occurring in the plant, not a preparation with exogenous oil added.

"Identity" means the set of characteristics by which an ingredient or product is definitively recognisable or known. In the case of hemp and other botanical ingredients, identity means the part of the plant and the botanical genus, species, cultivar, strain and/or variety, as well as any other applicable characteristics identified on the label or other labelling. For hemp products, identity means the name of the product, the potency, the key characteristics of its form or composition, the species and/or other characteristics, if applicable.

"Infusion" - See section Extracts.

"Component" means any substance which is used in the manufacture of a product and which is intended to be present in the finished product.

Isolate" means a chemical constituent, such as hypericin or vanillin, that has been isolated from an herb or other organism.25 Isolates may contain traces of other constituents, moisture, etc.

NOTES: The most appropriate threshold above which material should be considered 'isolate' is the subject of some controversy, but is generally considered to be in the range 70-95%.

NOTES: When isolated ingredients are added to a product in which the same ingredients may occur naturally as part of an herb or other organism (e.g. isolated CBD added to a hemp product to increase CBD levels; isolated folic acids added to a yeast product to increase folic acid content, etc.), the presence of the exogenous ingredient should be disclosed on the product label.

Juice" means an aqueous liquid obtained by pressing botanical material without the addition of a solvent, which can then be used as is, concentrated by removing water or dried to powder. Juice strength may be represented as the input quantity of raw botanical material to the output quantity of finished material expressed as a ratio, with all measurements given in metric units.

"Live resin" means a resin obtained by extraction of fresh (i.e. not dried), usually frozen hemp biomass with a hydrophobic solvent such as butane.

"Live rosin" means rosin obtained by subjecting fresh (i.e. not dried), usually frozen hemp to heat and pressure.

"Product Lot" means a batch, or a specific identified part of a batch, which is uniform and intended to meet established specifications; or, in the case of a product manufactured in a continuous process, a specific identified quantity manufactured in a specific unit of time or quantity in a uniform manner and intended to meet established specifications.

"Maceration" - See section Extracts.

"Marker" - See entry for Botanical associations, types.

"Microorganisms' means yeasts, moulds, bacteria, viruses, protozoa and microscopic parasites and includes species that are pathogens. The term 'undesirable micro-organisms' includes those micro-organisms that are pathogens that subject food to decomposition, indicating that the food is contaminated or otherwise likely to cause food adulteration.

"Mycotoxins" means any group of naturally occurring toxins produced by fungi that can be found in certain crops and foods and which may be of public health or public health significance.

"Native extract" - See section Extracts.

"Hemp extract without THC" - See section Extracts.

"Percolation" - See section Extracts.

"Pesticide" is defined in US law as any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel or mitigate any pest; any substance or mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant; and nitrogen stabilisers. Pesticides include herbicides, fungicides and insecticides, as well as other substances.

"Pressed oil' (known in the hemp industry as 'pressed hemp oil' or 'cold-pressed hemp oil') refers to vegetable oil extracted from plant material by mechanical pressure.

NOTES: Some members of the cannabis industry use the term 'extract' to describe such preparations; this use is inconsistent with the definition of 'extract' adopted by regulatory bodies around the world, so AHPA recommends replacing such use.

"Processing assistance" means an ingredient used in the production/processing, packaging or wrapping of a product that is not present as an ingredient in the finished product in other than trace amounts. This could include, for example, cooking oil used to lubricate parts of equipment in contact with the product, inert gas used to flush the space above the packaging or solvents used for extraction that are removed later during processing.

"Product complaint" means any communication containing allegations, written, electronic or verbal, expressing for any reason concerns about the quality of a product that may be related to its cultivation, harvest, production/processing, packaging/packaging, labelling, storage or related operations. Product complaints may include reports of adverse events or serious adverse events.

"Proprietary blend" means a mixture of two or more dietary ingredients that are grouped together for the purpose of labelling a dietary supplement, and only the quantity of the entire group is disclosed on the product label. The individual ingredients of the mixture are not quantified on the label. The ingredients of the proprietary blend are listed in the Supplement Facts field in descending order by weight. (Alternatively, in the case of liquids, this may be in descending order by volume).

"Cleanliness" means relative freedom from foreign matter, impurities or contaminants, whether or not harmful to the consumer or detrimental to the product.

"Quality" means that the product consistently meets established specifications (such as identity, purity, strength, composition, packaging, wrapping and/or labelling) and has been produced, processed, packaged, packed, labelled and stored under conditions that prevent adulteration.

"Quality control" stands for product verification and quality assurance system.

"Raw hemp extract" - See section Extracts.

Resin" means a solid or highly viscous, water-insoluble, chemically complex substance secreted by certain plants, including: Cannabis sativa L. Resins often consist largely of esters and ethers of organic acids with complex alcohols; some are mainly acids or acid anhydrides. In some cases, they result from the oxidation of the terpene components of the essential oils. Resins can be obtained from the plant by physical methods (e.g. evaporation) or by solvent extraction.

NOTES: In the context of GMP dietary supplements (21 CFR Part 111), the term 'purity' refers to the proportion that represents the intended material. For example, L-alanine containing 95% of the L isomer and 5% of the D isomer is 'L- alanine pure at 95%' and has a purity of 95%.

"Resin extract" - See section Extracts.

Rosin" means a resinoid substance obtained by subjecting the resin to heat or by applying heat and pressure (e.g. heated pressure plates) to extract the substance from the plant material.

"Scientifically sound method" means an analytical method based on scientifically sound principles and suitable for the analysis of specific ingredients or products.

"Serious adverse reaction" means an adverse event that results in any of the following outcomes:

  • Death;
  • Life-threatening adverse event;
  • Inpatient hospitalisation or extension of existing hospitalisation;
  • Permanent or significant incapacity or significant interference with the ability to carry out normal life functions;
  • A congenital anomaly or birth defect; or
  • Medical intervention is needed to prevent one of these effects.

"Selective extract" - See Extracts section.

"Semi-purified extract" - See Extracts section.

"Standardised extract" - See Extracts section.

"Power" means the measure of a product expressed as: (a) the quantity or percentage of specific chemical constituents or groups of chemical constituents; (b) the concentration or quantity of hemp present in the hemp product; or (c) in the case of extracts, the input quantity of the crude botanical to the output quantity of the finished extract expressed as a ratio, with all measurements in metric units.

NOTES: In the hemp industry, the term 'potency' is often equated with the concentration of a specific ingredient, such as CBD. The correct term to use is 'potency' (or, in the context of dietary supplements, also 'purity'), as 'potency' is associated in US federal regulations with medicinal products and certain vitamins, referring to a measure of biological activity rather than a simple chemical quantification.

NOTES: This ratio is generally calculated on the basis of dry matter; if on the basis of fresh matter, this should be stated on the label.

NOTES: To be precise, pharmacological potency refers to a measure of biological activity expressed as the amount of chemical substance required to produce an effect of a certain intensity.

"Terpenes" means any of a class of hydrocarbons commonly found in plants and animals and empirically recognised to be made up of isoprene. The term includes terpenoids, which are oxidised derivatives of these hydrocarbons.

"Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)" denotes a cannabinoid with the formula C21H30O2 with a chemical structure as follows. It is often referred to as Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

chemical formula of THC

"Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)' stands for the cannabinoid with formula C22h30O4 and chemical structure below, and is the precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

THCA - chemical formula

"Hemp extract without THC" - See section Extracts.

"Tincture" - See section Extracts.

Downloads

Download a glossary of terms in English: Hemp Lexicon 2021 [PDF].

Here you will find the lexicon in Polish: Glossary of hemp industry terms [PDF].


Warning: Undefined array key -1 in /home/client.dhosting.pl/konraddz/purehemp.pl/public_html/wp-content/themes/purehemp/page-knowledge.php on line 39
Pure Hemp Shop - Trusted
SEMIKO sp. z o.o. Reviews with ekomi-pl.com

We use cookies to continuously improve the quality of our services, our commercial offer and to enrich our content. You can find out more about this and how we process your personal data in our PRIVACY POLICY.

The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.

Close