What is and how does CBD cannabidiol work?

The unique potential of hemp's properties has been known for many years. The plant has been used for centuries as a natural therapeutic agent to support traditional treatments for many ailments.

Seed hemp, from which CBD cannabidiol-rich preparations are made, unlike cannabis, contains trace and even desirable amounts of THC. The amount of THC in modern hemp preparations is so small that they do not have an intoxicating effect. As a result, they can be legally grown, processed and ultimately used in most European countries.

What is CBD? Read on and you'll find out everything there is to know about CBD cannabidiol.

Read in: 10 minute(s)

Update: 16.02.2020 - extensive discussion of the effects of CBD on receptor function.

CBD cannabidiol - a few words of introduction

Cannabidiol known as CBD is one of the key ingredients in cannabis seeds, which has been a source of curiosity for many years on the part of scientists, doctors, the public and consumers alike.

Cannabidiol CBD, unlike THC, does not exhibit any of the intoxicating properties with which cannabis is often identified. It is extracted from a completely different, legal variety of cannabis, the so-called hemp seed.

Research is currently being conducted to demonstrate the therapeutic and even curative efficacy of cannabiol CBD. We are also increasingly aware of its positive effects on key areas of the human body's functioning. Evidence of the health-promoting effects of cannabidiol surrounded by the full spectrum of other cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids is increasing while there is no information about any harmfulness.

CBD cannabidiol has been unequivocally declared safe by the World Health Organization (WHO), as you can read about here

CBD cannabidiol what it is

What is cannabidiol and how does it work?

Kannabdiol is one of the phytochemicals contained in hemp. These plants are a rich source of more than 100 different health-promoting plant constituents.

Scientific nomenclature gives them the name cannabinoids.

Some cannabinoids (e.g. THC) delivered to the human body bind to receptors of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabidiol belongs to the group of phytocannabinoids that stimulate its normal function. Research to date indicates that cannabidiol does not bind directly to the receptors of the endocannabinoid system.

The difference between CBD and THC includes, but is not limited to. cannabidiol is not a compound with intoxicating properties.

The use of CBD preparations does not cause intoxication or altered states of consciousness. Preparations such as CBD oil They are therefore safe for daily use and normal functioning at work and at home.

You will read more about the endocannabinoid system later in this article.

What potential properties does CBD cannabidiol have?

Research conducted by the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology in 2013 proved that CBD has a positive, stimulatory effect on the activity of the endocannabinoid system.

Influencing this key system cannabidiol CBD surrounded by the full spectrum of other cannabinoids, as well as terpenes and flavonoids, may also minimise seizure activity in drug-resistant variants of epilepsy.

In addition cannabidiol CBD can support medical therapies for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

Another aspect is its potential antimicrobial properties CBD cannabidiol preventing the uncontrolled and unfavourable proliferation of these micro-organisms, especially from the gram-positive group.

CBD can be effectively used prophylactically and in the therapeutic practice of mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, psychosis or schizophrenia.

Cannabidiol CBD also shows strong potential for efficacy against neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's), especially when standard pharmacology no longer works effectively.

It has also been shown that it can exert a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting the symptoms of aging processes associated with dementia.

Cannabidiol CBD can also help with typically fungal diseases, killing microorganisms or fungi.

It also shows strong potential to stimulate the body's natural immunity and stimulate the body towards homeostasis.

Surrounded by other cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids cannabidiol CBD exhibits analgesic properties. It alleviates and relieves pain, also in its chronic varieties.

Cannabidiol CBD is being studied for its numerous other health-promoting properties.

You can find out more about the properties of cannabidiol in the dedicated article here: CBD Properties

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How does CBD cannabidiol work?

Cannabidiol CBD has a beneficial effect on the functioning of many human functional systems, including the endocannabinoid system, which is crucial from a health point of view.

The endocannabinoid system is a signalling system that regulates key processes and functions in the body.

It is responsible primarily, but not exclusively, for the regulation of body temperature, blood pressure, sleep quality, appetite, mental mood, energy management or pain perception.

Holistically speaking, all these processes working properly make up what we call homeostasis, a state of perfect harmony in the functioning of all human life processes.

In a state of homeostasis, the organism is believed to exhibit a strong capacity for self-healing.

A healthy body produces endocannabinoids on its own for its own needs. Such an important, if not the most important endocannabinoid is anandamide, and the other 2-AG.

Disruption of homeostasis and the body's ability to self-regulate can be caused by numerous internal and external factors such as:

  • inflammatory conditions (including chronic inflammatory conditions with an incompletely identified cause),
  • severe long-term stress (regardless of its source and causes),
  • persistent or untreated viral, fungal and bacterial infections,
  • functioning in toxic or contaminated environments and surroundings.

In disease states, as well as in prolonged imbalances of the endocannabinoid system of various origins, there may be a situation where the amount of endocannabinoids (including anandamide) produced by the body is insufficient.

The functioning of the endocannabiod system deteriorates and the body gradually loses its ability to self-regulate vital processes.

Homeostasis can be permanently disrupted and its restoration requires the supplementation of chemical compounds with similar or even identical effects to endocannabinoids. These compounds may be of natural origin or may be artificially produced in laboratory conditions. It is generally accepted that natural chemical compounds can be just as effective, but with a lower risk of adverse side effects.

Such compounds are natural cannabinoids including natural cannabidiol CBD, of which cbd hemp oil, also known as cbd oil, is an excellent and safe source.

Cannabidiol activates the function of the endocannabinoid system's CB1 and CB2 receptors.

However, this does not mean that it binds to these receptors. In fact, CBD binds minimally to the receptors of the endocannabinoid system.

The mechanism of the positive effect is to stimulate the normal activity of this system.

What's more. Cannabidiol inhibits the breakdown of anandamide and helps to maintain its high concentration in the body. Anandamide is associated with mental health, among other things, as we have written more extensively about in this article: CBD and depression

The interaction of cannabinoids with CB1 and CB2 receptors while affecting other functional areas of the human body is complex and multifaceted. One use may be derived from interactions at different sites and through different mechanisms.

What do we know today? Quite a lot:

  1. Cannabidiol directly activates the function of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors - this involves application:
    • Anti-anxiety and antidepressants - A similar effect is shown by another cannabinoid - Cannabidiol acid CBDa
    • As support in addiction therapy
    • Promoting quality of sleep and regeneration of the body
    • Promoting healthy appetite and nutrition
    • Antidiarrhoeal and antiemetic
    • Analgesic by minimising pain perception
  2. Cannabidiol activates vanilloid receptor function (TRPV1)-related applications analgesic. The name comes from the fact that CBD works on a similar principle to the eugenol found in the popular vanilla - which has been used for hundreds of years for headaches, for example. Interestingly, it also binds to TRPV1 receptors anandamide by making them more active.
  3. Cannabidiol inactivates the function of GPR55 repreceptors - acts as an antagonist, i.e. inhibits their function. GPR55 is found primarily in the cerebellum and is involved in, among other things, the regulation of blood pressure and bone density. Overactivity of GPR55 receptors has been linked to the development of osteoporosis, as well as to accelerated proliferation of cancer cells. The inhibition of GPR55 repressor activity by CBD is associated with anti-cancer and anti-osteoporosis uses of cannabidiol.
  4. Cannabidiol activates nuclear PPAR receptors (PARR-alpha, PARR-gamma and PARR-delta) - this is associated with applications:
    • anti-cancer - activation of the PPAR-gamma repceptor on the surface of the cell nucleus inhibits the growth of cancer cells and can lead to shrinking tumours, e.g. lung cancer,
    • neuroprotective - e.g. in Alzheimer's disease, as PPAR-gamma minimises the beta-amyloid deposits associated with the development of this neurodegenerative disease,
    • anti-diabeticPPAR receptors regulate gene function responsible for the body's energy homeostasis, fat absorption, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic functions,
    • anti-schizophrenic - CBD promotes the normal function of PARR-alpha receptors by inhibiting the enzymatic breakdown of anandamide, among others. Abnormal PARR-alpha receptor function is associated with the development of schizophrenia.
  5. Cannabidiol as a reuptake inhibitor (slowing down reuptake)
    • CBD is transported into cells thanks to the FABP transporter protein - the same route THC and our endogenous, cannabis-like cannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG also enter cells.
      Both CBD and THC modulate the function of repressors on the surface of cell nuclei by regulating gene expression and mitochondrial activity. Anandamide is enzymatically broken down inside cells, i.e. it completes its life cycle. The transport agent (FABP protein), which is limited in amount, is partially taken up by CBD. This means that less anandamide, for example, enters the cells (where it completes its life cycle) and thus its amount in the body is increased. CBD inhibits reuptake i enzymatic breakdown of anandamide.
    • CBD slows down the reuptake of adenosine increasing its concentration in the brain, which in turn regulates the activity of adenosine receptors. Adenosine A1A and A2A receptors play a key role of cardiovascular function, regulating the amount of oxygen consumed by the heart muscle and blood pressure. These receptors play an important role in anti-inflammatory processes throughout the body.
  6. Cannabidiol acts as a modulator allosteric - can enhance or slow down the signal transmission process by changing the shape of the receptor.
    • CBD acts as a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors. In other words, CBD enhances the function of GABA-A receptors. GABA-A receptors are responsible for quieting, suppressing the activity of the nervous system. Valium or Relanium, for example, as well as benzodiazepines work on a similar principle. CBD reduces feelings of anxiety by changing the shape of GABA-A receptors enhancing the natural calming effects of GABA.
    • CBD acts as a negative allosteric modulator of CB1 receptors of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabidiol does not bind to CB1 receptors as THC does. It does, however, influence their shape by weakening the ability of these receptors to bind THC lowering the psychoactivity of this cannabinoid. This should be of interest to any recreational cannabis enthusiast, as it minimises the risk of negative side effects associated with THC's effects on the human nervous system or psyche.

How do you choose the right source of CBD cannabidiol?

CBD hemp oils

An excellent source of CBD cannabidiol is cbd full spectrum hemp oil or popular cbd oil. The sale of high quality cbd full spectrum hemp oil is carried out by our CBD shop.

The phrase 'Full Spectrum' translates from English as 'Full Spectrum' and means that the preparation contains the most favourable possible composition of cannabinoids accompanied by terpenes and flavonoids of plant origin, which are also considered beneficial to health.

These preparations are produced in Poland based on an innovative extraction method from ecologically grown material, i.e. dried material (CO2 ectraction). This method is considered to be the best currently available on the market. CBD oils produced using this method are characterised by very high purity. They are free from undesirable solvent contamination, typical of preparations produced using alcohol extraction.

Purehemp's CBD hemp oil is laboratory tested for the presence of the full spectrum of cannabinoids by the Institute of Chromatographic Analysis of the Maria Curie Sklodowska University in Lublin or the renowned non-profit foundation Canna from Spain.

Cannabidiol CBD contained in the oil is applied with a dropper. The dosage depends on the purpose of application and is individual in nature. The amount of cannabinoids in a single drop is dependent on the concentration of phytochemicals in the preparation and ranges from approximately 1.5mg for 3% full spectrum hemp oil to approximately 5mg for 10% full spectrum hemp oil. CBD droplets applied sublingually have a high bioavailability and a reaction time of up to approximately 40 minutes.

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Cannabidiol capsules

An interesting option is our hemp oil cbd full spectrum available as vegan or gelato CBD capsules.

Their advantage is that the expected dose of phytochemicals can be precisely applied down to the milligram. CBD capsules are essentially tasteless, which is why they are a popular choice for those with taste sensitivities who find the oil's tart, spicy taste difficult to accept.

CBD capsules are available in two variants: 10mg and 25mg CBD capsules. This value indicates the amount of the full spectrum of phytochemicals including mainly CBD in a single capsule. In the pack you will find 30 capsules. The entire pack therefore contains 300mg or 750mg of phytochemicals and lasts for 1 month with the use of one capsule per day.

The capsule shell is made of HMPC cellulose. It is a 100% plant-based product. It is suitable for use by vegans and vegetarians.

CBD capsules have a lower absorption rate than oil applied sublingually. This is because they go directly into the digestive system bypassing the sublingual absorption stage. Their advantage is that the slower release makes the effects of the phytochemicals milder and last longer.

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Other important information on sources of CBD cannabidiol

A characteristic feature of natural nutraceuticals such as CBD oil is their chemical diversity. The compositional structure, i.e. the composition of cannabinoids terpenes and flavonoids in finished hemp preparations, shows strong variation not only between preparations from different manufacturers/brands.

At present, there is no way to effectively standardise cannabis breeding. So it is not possible for a plant to have an identical composition of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids every single time. The fact that sowing is done from the same certified and standardised seeds does not matter here. This composition is influenced by so many factors beyond human control that it is difficult to imagine full standardisation ever being possible at all. Even under the conditions of greenhouse-controlled (so-called indoor) breeding, this seems to be an extremely difficult task.

Since we are (so far) unable to standardise the material processed into natural preparations, the preparations themselves will also differ from batch to batch. Even if they are produced by the same manufacturer, using the same methods, but with material sourced at different times and from different places. This is the case for the moment and there is no indication that this situation will change in the near future.

At the moment, cbd full spectrum hemp oil from a reputable manufacturer should be standardised at least for the content of the main cannabinoid - CBD cannabidiol - while keeping the concentration of the other cannabinoid - tetrahydrocannabidiol THC - at the legal limit.

Whenever possible, it is advisable to reach for an oil containing the full composition of the remaining cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. This is because only preparations with the full spectrum of phytosubstances allow the occurrence of synergy effect. The structure of this composition, i.e. the amount or concentration of health-promoting compounds of natural origin other than CBD and THC in such a gigantic quantity, will remain diverse for some time to come.

The physico-chemical characteristics of hemp preparations, such as smell, taste, consistency and colour, can also be indicative of the quality of the preparation, as they are a direct consequence of the chemical composition of the finished product, which in turn is derived from factors such as the purity of the material used and the quality of the production process.

Purified hemp oils have a lighter hue, a runny but still oily consistency and a slightly more accessible, less spicy taste. Natural hemp oils, on the other hand, have a darker colour due to a higher concentration of chlorophyll. In addition, they have a thicker consistency due to the presence of waxes.

CBD hemp oil from Purehemp belongs to this particular group of high-quality hemp preparations.

Does CBD cause side effects?

In brief and highly simplified terms:

A wide range of scientific studies conducted by the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology on the dosage range and maximum portions of CBD have proven that its use has no lasting or severe side effects. Adverse effects occurring basically only in overdose - yes, cannabidiol can be overdosed like any other substance - they are limited to short-term nausea, headache, dry mouth and excessive sleepiness. All these symptoms disappear in a relatively short time without leaving a trace.

The safe doses mentioned in the World Health Organisation report are very high. The amount of CBD consumed when following the directions of hemp product manufacturers is only a small fraction of the dose considered completely safe.

This topic is widely discussed in the article CBD side effects and benefits of use

CBD and the law. Is CBD cannabidiol legal?

In principle, CBD is completely legal in Poland and many other countries around the world. In light of Article 63 of the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction, the cultivation and harvesting of cannabis herb, i.e. Cannabis Sativa L., are not punishable under the Criminal Code. This means that such activities are fully legal in Poland.

CBD hemp oil is a legal product as long as the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content remains below 0.2%.

CBD oil is not a medicinal product and is not intended to prevent or treat disease.

However, it may have a supplementary significance. This is in light of the fact that there is a condition referred to in theory as endocannabinoid deficiency. It is similar in nature to a deficiency of vitamins or other health-relevant minerals and elements.

Confirmation of this theory will make the use of cannabinoids supplementary in nature, with preparations such as CBD hemp oil becoming full-fledged dietary supplements.

Is it worth supplementing with cannabidiol?

Cannabidiol  is one of more than 100 active substances contained in cannabis seeds. Cannabidiol is legal in Poland. It is also recognised as the main, but not the only, health-promoting ingredient in cannabis and medical marijuana. Hemp oils do not have negatively perceived psychoactive properties. As mentioned earlier, the safety of use cannabidiol  was confirmed in a World Health Organisation (WHO) report. For this reason, they can be used in practice and in the short term as a supplement to help maintain the proper functioning of key physiological and regulatory processes in the body.

Of the substances detected in cannabis plants, cannabidiol appears to have the greatest potential for health beneficial properties. Cannabidiolunlike THC, it does not cause states of intoxication, is not addictive and has no side effects other than the aforementioned nausea, dry mouth or drowsiness that occur with its overdose.

So is it worth investing in the use of CBD cannabidiol and introducing it into your daily diet? The answer is extremely simple and comes to mind. Of course it is worth it! CBD has so much potential that an investment from around PLN 50 for a 3% concentration of 10 ml of oil sufficient even for more than a month of use is a pure benefit from the perspective of promoting a widely understood healthy lifestyle and quality of life.

The enormous potential of cannabis and the CBD cannabidiol it contains is only waiting for hard evidence in research. These are increasing almost daily. A breakthrough can be expected very soon. For more information on CBD cannabidiol can be found on Wikipedia.

Did this article appeal to you? We managed to answer the question "CBD what is it?". If so share it with your family, friends and acquaintances. And in the meantime, if you are determined to try it we invite you to shop in our shop.

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